PG introductory explanation: The following is an excerpt between a couple of chapters of the Writers Guild of America and The Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers. The producers contract with writers for movie and television scripts.
Basically, this is a union contract with management. The original document is 94 pages long, and you should be able to review the entire document at the link if you’re into that sort of activity.
PG is excerpting a portion of the agreement that governs the use of Artificial Intelligence programs. He apologizes for the formatting, which he has tweaked a bit for readability but is, unfortunately, still used in far more than a few contracts negotiated by lawyers and keyboarded by legal secretaries. Additionally, PG could see no need for the use of quote marks here and there.
Note also that PG’s excerpt begins with Article 72 of the contract. PG reads these sorts of documents so you don’t have to.
ARTICLE 72 GENERATIVE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
A. The parties acknowledge that definitions of generative artificial intelligence
(‘GAI’) vary, but agree that the term generally refers to a subset of artificial
intelligence that learns patterns from data and produces content, including written
material, based on those patterns, and may employ algorithmic methods (e.g.,
ChatGPT, Llama, MidJourney, Dall-E). It does not include ‘traditional AI’
technologies such as those used in CGI and VFX and those programmed to
perform operational and analytical functions.
B. The Companies agree that because neither traditional AI nor GAI is a person,
neither is a ‘writer’ or ‘professional writer’ as defined in Articles 1.B.1.a.,
1.B.1.b., 1.C.1.a. and 1.C.1.b. of this MBA, and, therefore, written material
produced by traditional AI or GAI shall not be considered literary material under
this or any prior MBA.
C. Should a Company furnish a writer with written material produced by GAI which
has not been previously published or exploited, and instruct the writer to use the
GAI-produced material as the basis for writing literary material:
1. The Company shall disclose to that writer that the written material was
produced by GAI.
2. The GAI-produced written material shall not be considered assigned
material for purposes of determining the writer’s compensation.
3. The GAI-produced written material shall not be considered source material
for purposes of determining writing credit.
4. The GAI-produced written material shall not be the basis for disqualifying
a writer from eligibility for separated rights.
This subparagraph C. also applies when a writer, with the consent of the
Company, uses GAI in the course of preparing literary material. Company agrees
that it will not publish or exploit GAI written material for the purposes of evading
“When a writer, with the consent of the Company, uses GAI in the course of
preparing written material or incorporates GAI-produced material in written
material, such written material shall be considered literary material and not
material ‘produced’ by GAI.
The following examples illustrate application of this subparagraph C.:
“Company furnishes Writer A with written material substantially in the
form of a screenplay produced by GAI which has not been previously
published or exploited and assigns no other materials. Company instructs
Writer A to rewrite the GAI-produced written material. Company must
pay Writer A no less than the minimum compensation for a screenplay
under Article 13.A.1.a.(2), as well as no less than the amount specified in
Article 13.A.1.a.(9), ‘Additional Compensation Screenplay – No Assigned
Material.’ The GAI-produced written material is not considered source
material when determining writing credit to Writer A and will not
disqualify Writer A from eligibility for separated rights.
“Company later assigns the screenplay rewritten by Writer A to Writer B
and instructs Writer B to rewrite the screenplay rewritten by Writer A.
Company must pay Writer B no less than the minimum compensation for a
rewrite under Article 13.A.1.a.(3). Writer A’s rewritten screenplay must be
considered when determining writing credit to Writer B and eligibility for
“Company furnishes Writer A with written material substantially in the
form of a story produced by GAI which has not been previously published
or exploited and assigns no other materials. Company instructs Writer A to
write a teleplay based on the GAI-produced written material. Company
must pay Writer A no less than the minimum compensation for a story and
teleplay. The GAI-produced story is not considered source material when
determining writing credit to Writer A and will not disqualify Writer A
from eligibility for separated rights.
“Company later assigns the teleplay written by Writer A to Writer B and
instructs Writer B to rewrite the teleplay written by Writer A. Company
must pay Writer B no less than the minimum compensation for a rewrite.
Writer A’s teleplay must be considered when determining writing credit to
Writer B and eligibility for separated rights.
“D. A writer will be required to adhere to the Company’s policies regarding the use of
GAI (e.g., policies related to ethics, privacy, security, copyrightability or other
protection of intellectual property rights). Any purchase of literary material from
a professional writer is also subject to such policies. A writer must obtain the
Company’s consent before using GAI. The Company retains the right to reject the
use of GAI, including the right to reject a use of GAI that could adversely affect
the copyrightability or exploitation of the work.
“E. A Company may not require, as a condition of employment, that a writer use a
GAI program which generates written material that would otherwise be ‘literary
material’ (as defined in Article 1.A.5.) if written by a writer (as defined in Article
1.B.1.a. and Article 1.C.1.a.) (e.g., a Company may not require a writer to use
ChatGPT to write literary material). The preceding sentence does not prohibit a
Company from requiring a writer to use a GAI program that does not generate
written material, such as a GAI program that detects potential copyright
infringement or plagiarism.
“F. The parties acknowledge that the legal landscape around the use of GAI is
uncertain and rapidly developing and each party is reserving all rights relating
thereto unless otherwise expressly addressed in this Article 72. For example,
nothing in this Article 72 restricts any writer who has retained reserved rights
under Article 16.B., or the WGA on behalf of any such writer, from asserting that
the exploitation of their literary material to train, inform, or in any other way
develop GAI software or systems, is within such rights and is not otherwise
permitted under applicable law.
“G. Each Company agrees to meet with the Guild during the term of this Agreement at
least semi-annually at the request of the Guild and subject to appropriate
confidentiality agreements to discuss and review information related to the
Company’s use and intended use of GAI in motion picture development and
production. The foregoing provision shall not be construed to waive any right of
the Guild under the National Labor Relations Act, including but not limited to the
right to seek information necessary and relevant to the administration and enforcement of this Article 72.”
Link to the rest at WGA Contract 2023